Dallas here from the Social Care Team here at Shopify!
When it comes to taxes there are some customizations that you are able to do, but some of the things that you have listed you wouldn't be able to do.
On the product page of each product, you have the ability to select if taxes will be charged.
This will then pull in the data from your taxes page (Settings > Taxes in your Store Admin)
As far as specific tax setting are concerned you are able to make tax parameters for each country, but unfortunately, there isn't a way to set up your taxes for customer groups.
If you wanted to set up your taxes for a certain period of time you would have to do so manually. At any time you can go into the product and unselect that charge taxes button. You can also go to Settings > Taxes and adjust the parameters at any time.
Under the Tax settings for the country, you are able to make more specific tax settings for each region. You are also able to set up tax overrides if you needed.
This link here will go into more detail about all of the tax features that come with, or are available in, your Shopify Admin.
With all of this being said, however, I definitely recommend you reach out to your local tax professional to make sure that all of the taxes are set up correctly for your products so you don't deal with legal implications down the road.
I hope that helps to answer your question a bit.