So far, neither Shopify nor my representative from the Theme that I use have been able to provide clarity or a solution to this problem. Help me, Obi-Wan Kenobi...you're my only hope.
Right now for each product I have, there are two "product pages". One that is linked from the All products page, and another linked from the Collections page that it is in. This was not by design, but seems to be by default.
Currently, the page linked to from the Collections tab is the one that is the one in the navigation. However, the the URL specified as the canonical (preferred) URL to Google is not the one in the navigation. Herein lies the problem.