Melissa from Shopify here. So in order to set such a range of shipping options, this would mean going beyond the manual rates that can be set up within the Shopify Admin, it would be very custom.
If you need to set up a more custom shipping method for your product or collections, there is a range of apps that you can take a look and see if they would be a good fit for what you would like to have, check them out here. To use some of these apps you may need to have Carrier calculated shipping enabled on your store in order to use the functionality needed from the app.
Bespoke Shipping http://bit.ly/2uaYH6b is an app that comes to mind. This app actually has the option of setting up time-based rates. They also offer a 7-day free trial if you wanted to test the app's capabilities out for yourself and see if it could work for your business.
Hope this information helps! You can reach out to the Guru team https://help.shopify.com/questions if you have any questions.
Have a great day!
Melissa | Shopify
Within Shopify, you can enable flat rate or free shipping options at the checkout. But, you can display shipping methods from different carriers by enabling carrier calculated shipping on your Shopify store. Enabling this would allow you to display rates from USPS, DHL, etc. To enable that, there are multiple options;
Now, if you want to display shipping methods based on other factors like zones, quantity, total weight, etc, you will have to use different apps available on Shopify.