Karlie here from the Shopify Guru Team! So, when setting up shipping rates within the Shopify Admin you would have the options of using carrier calculated rates or manual shipping rates which can be calculated by weight or price. However, if you're looking for a way to set specific shipping rates per product then you would want to look into using an app that would allow you to customize your shipping rates for those products that you're dropshipping.
There are a few apps that I have in mind that could work for the shipping plan that you have. These apps would allow you to customize shipping rates per product. Be sure to check out; Better Shipping, Advanced Shipping Rules and Bespoke Shipping.
I hope this helps, but if you have any further questions - be sure to ask and I would be happy to help!