an order vs fulfilment vs transaction example for my analysis please

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I want to be able to standardise the output from Shopify so that I can use it for my customers the same way that I use for other POS systems (both online and offline) so that I can create statistical information.

For Vend, I treat a sales receipt as two types of transaction, a revenue-transaction with line items and one or more payment-transactions all conforming to a data schema. The reason I split them is because, some businesses use bookkeeping applications for invoicing where the revenue-transaction and payment-transaction happen separately depending on the terms of the invoice. I create metrics from either revenue or payment transactions and don't make exceptions for POS where the two are together at point the sale way made and paid for.

When I look at a Shopify order, I have a customer order and a payment which then results in one or more fulfilment depending on stock. My first challenge about how Shopify works is that I am used to online systems where a payment is authorised but then not processed until fulfilled whereas Shopify takes full payment up front to then issue the order for fulfilment.

I have not seen real customer data, a real example of how an order looks when a consumer places an order through the store, only what is applied at the backend so I have missed out what an order looks like when a set of items have been selected and where the weight is totalled and delivery charges applied. Are delivery service charges applied as line items or under the fulfilment section? If I add up the value of line items of an order, it only appears to include the products being purchased without the shipping. Does someone have an example of how these charges are represented?

I also have no understanding of how multiple shipments for multiple fulfilment happens - can a consumer even order an item that is not in stock and if so, are they paying for something that cannot be shipped? How is this managed? Does Shopify consider a sale in their dashboard from the date it is fulfilled or when the payment was taken?

I'm sorry for the myriad of questions, I need to understand how this works before I build out a solution for just revenue and payments. I also need to factor in that there might be metrics I need to create for unfulfilled items which need prioritising to complete transactions and affect purchasing from suppliers to honour orders placed by consumers.

Additionally, I am referring to an order specifically because it seems to be a single place where you get to see order, fulfilment and transaction information. Am I missing some detail by going to the order that I should get from going to the transaction and fulfilment endpoints?

Your help is appreciated.