Theming or Storefront API

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I'm doing some research into the Shopify platform and wondering how custom I need to go in order to fit my use case.

Here are a couple of examples of what I want to achieve:

  • When registering an account I want to make an API call to my own system to validate that the user exists. I don't want to use webhooks to validation after an account has been created rather doing it before. Should the user not exist in my database I want to inform the user how they should proceed to do so. If the user exists the registration in Shopify can continue.
  • Based on data stored in my own system and database I want to either filter product the user can see or prevent from purchasing. This user data (meta data) I can see either being synced into Shopify (if that's possible) or make an API call to my own service and then being able to filter products / prevent purchases based on that information.

If want to do this level of customisation do I need to go down the Storefront API route and essentially building the entire frontend and using Shopify as the backend? Or can I customise certain parts of a theme to this extent that it would fit my use cases? I understood that you can inject custom javascript into a theme page and through that perhaps prevent things but that feels a bit hacky so I'm looking for the proper way of doing it.

Hope you can help guide which path I need to take.