It might be beneficial to provide an example of products and how you would like to structure them during checkout. The woocommerce grouped product example doesn't seem to exist on its own so it is more about how it contains other products. In that case perhaps a collection would be enough in Shopify and you would then include a set of products under that.
No, unlike WooCommere Shopify only offers 1 single type of product. You can only use an app to achieve similar features.
If you want to know more, you can read my article: What are the possible ways to sell products individually and in customized product packs?