I can't find a definitive answer to this and the most helpful comment I could find was from 2012.
How do I make my url go straight to the catalog page in the Simple theme?
Anders from the Social Care Team here. Thanks for reaching out today.
While redirects can be a bit tricky on a Shopify store, there is still a workaround you can implement if you wish. By creating an Auto-Collection with the condition that any Product Price greater than $0 will be included, essentially creates an 'All Collection' - which is what the Catalog URL directs to
Next, head to your Theme Editor and add this new 'All Collection' as a Featured Collection. Your homepage will show your full Catalog. I would also remove any other Featured sections you don't need. We have a guide that goes through this process, as well as how to control the order of products in this 'All Collection', HERE.
If you run into any trouble implementing this, let me know!