Sophia here from Shopify. Welcome to the Shopify Community!
If your billing information is already updated to reflect the new card details, you can renew your domain manually either by reconnecting it or repurchasing it, depending on how long it has been disconnected. To see if you can reconnect it, head to Online Store > Domains in your admin and select "Connect existing domain" near the top of the page. Let me know what happens when you select this option.