OK, so you copy and pasted it I'm guessing?
Whilst you have stuff in there you don't need/shouldn't have, I can't see anything that would cause the problem you're having. So I would try this.
Create a new product and add the copy & images manually via the editor (not in HTML view). Just add the first few paragraphs & images. Then save that and test it on mobile and see if that fixes it. Report back on how that goes.
There is definitely something very weird going on here. For example in the code on your live site you are trying to load this image:
Which is also in the code you've just posted but leads to a non existent image (click it in the code you've posted and you'll see).
Still think starting from fresh is the best/easiest way to see what is going on.