Jana here from the Shopify Guru team :)
Our servers are located in the United States, and that's where our main data is stored. However most of your website information will be stored locally via a Content Delivery Network (CDN). You can read more about the CDN here.
Alternately, if your question relates to data transfer consent from EU customers, you can read more about that here.
Please don't hesitate to get in touch with me directly by replying to this post with any more questions or for any clarification :)
Jana A. | Shopify Guru
Have been testing the speed of the server in line with the new Google page experience roll out in May 2021 have found that using gtmetrix if I test in Canada I presume that is where Shopify webserver is my page is A 96%
But if a change to any other country it drops to B or F now It seems to me and correct me if I'm wrong, that the reason is! the time it takes to transfer information from Shopify server to another country server
Now this is a problem because I'm in Sydney this means an extra load time of 777ms, and that means I will never get a fast Mobile experience ranking I'm at 20 % now on google on mobile search but for desktop around B at 90%
When I contacted Shopify about the problem and asked if they have their own servers in Sydney the reply back was we are Global, so in other words, the answer was no
Below is Screen Shot to prove the lack of speed between Shopify servers to other parts of the world
Thank you for reaching out to the community forums with your question. I understand you want to ensure that your store is compliant with EU laws about the servers your customer data is stored upon. I know this is an important topic and I'm glad to see you reached out about it.
We have the information regarding this topic laid out in our GDPR and Cross-border data transfers white paper. You can review those by following the link below. As these are legal documents, it's best that I don't excerpt them here in the forums and allow you to review them in their entirety. Shopify does have procedures in place for managing this kind of data though.
If you have additional questions you need help with, please let me know. You can also email our legal team at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have questions pertaining to the information contained within our whitepaper documents.