Let's move right along.
Shopify FD Dash Tool: I can't sing enough praises for this bookmarklet and extension. It is the swiss army knife for reaching metafields for everything within the admin. It's amazing. Rock on Jason. Please feel free to add something to his kitty for all the work and effort that went into this tool for everyone to benefit from.
Chrome extension here: http://shopify.freakdesign.com.au/#shopifyFD_chrome
Bookmarklet here: https://shopify.freakdesign.com.au/
Shopify theme tool: http://apps.shopify.com/desktop-theme-editor
Textmate Bundle: http://wiki.shopify.com/Shopify_Textmate_Bundle
Some great tutorials:
Shopify theme from scratch in the wiki: http://wiki.shopify.com/Theme_from_scratch
Great series of tutorials from our very own Tetsuro: http://www.tetchi.ca/shopify-theme-from-scratch/
A series of more advanced tutorials: http://wiki.shopify.com/Tutorials
Liquid Cheat Cheet: http://cheat.markdunkley.com/
Barebones themes that can help you get started:
Shopify's latest and greatest framework, Timber.
"Twigs" -> Add-ons for Timber. http://twigs.club/
Skeleton Theme By Caroline:
Fork it! -> Repo here: https://github.com/Shopify/skeleton-theme
Foundation theme by Cam:
Fork it! -> Repo here: https://github.com/Cam/Shopify-Foundation-Theme
Nice set of links!
I created a theme built on Foundation Framework that I working on thorough documentation for, as a 'Shopify Theme Framework'. It may be useful to 'front end' coders. Especially those who use Foundation already.
Along the lines of what Cam's posted for the Foundation framework, I have a product called "Bootstrap for Shopify", which provides a comprehensive, well-documented and easy to use set of templates based on the Bootstrap framework.
It's available at http://bootstrapforshopify.com.
It is a paid product, so if advertising it here is inappropriate I apologise! Users are able to get it for free if they set up an Affiliate Licence with me.