When are Payment Errors triggered? Before order is created or after manual capture of payment?

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I’m currently customizing the message for the Payment Error email notification but am still trying to confirm when Payment errors happen if I opted to capture payments manually. Based on the standard message on the email template, it seems that the Payment error happens during the checkout process and the items remain in the cart (then this would probably result in an abandoned cart instance, not an order?). Since I opted to manually capture payments, can Payment errors also happen after I click Capture Payment?? (in this case I would have to cancel my order). I would just like to know this beforehand, so that I can map out all the possible payment error cases and explain to my store staff the steps they should do when this happens.