Rae from Shopify here. Thanks for reaching out about this.
Any of the payment gateways on the list you shared are available to businesses based in Qatar. This means you can select any gateway from this list to use on your store!
However, if you're unsure which option is best for you, or if you'd like to learn more about any of those gateways listed, I recommend reaching out to those gateways directly for more information. These are all third-party gateways that are external to Shopify, so their independent support teams are the best people to help further with any questions or concerns you have.
You mentioned that you're fairly new to ecommerce, so I also wanted to check in with you to see if you've started building your online store yet, and if you need any assistance with this? If so, we have some great resources that are really helpful for new merchants, such as:
Let me know if there's anything else I can lend a hand with!