Yes but you'll need an external credit card reader. As Shopify Payments is not supported in Australia direct payments are not integrated.
[edit: I'm 99% on this. Someone with more up to date info may want to pipe up]
We're are in the UK and started using POS in the retail store yesterday, works fine with our external credit card reader (ie you process the payment outside of POS, but mark it as paid once the card approval has completed)