Exact same problem... a bit sad that there isn't even a reply 😕
My best idea now is to download (and probably cache by day to not get rate-limited) the full list, e.g. https://help.shopify.com/txt/product_taxonomy/de.txt (replace country code with the one you need), then 🤞 that the IDs actually map one-to-one (looks like it from a first glance), and parse the categories out of it.
Example: the graphql query gives me ID "gid://shopify/ProductTaxonomyNode/174", so I look up the line starting with 174 and then do a regex like `/^\d+ - (.+)$/` to capture the group name. Could split by " > " to get the segments but I don't need that.
I'll probably also strip the first line and then turn it into an array by splitting the whole thing by newline character. That way I can access the localized category just by using the ID as an index 🤓