I would like to restrict access to checking out products on a store such that users can only buy from me if currently located in a specified location, for example New York. To be clear, I'm not trying to restrict shipping addresses as I want tourists and visitors to be able to purchase in the event their geolocation shows that they are in New York, as per our example.
Yes. Even if you have money to burn you cannot beat that reality unless they are physically present somewhere you control, such as a convention or dynamic billboard|adspace.
You may need the carrier service api to reject orders during checkout, or possibly be on shopifyPlus with a either a modifed checkout template or checkoutscripts.
In my honest opinion, I think the Shopify documentation is a little bit disorganized and too sparse in places. It's hard to find exactly what you need if it's even possible, and even if you manage to do some of the names of the APIs are too close to determine what you actually need. In any case, I looked into both of those and they don't really offer and real solutions from what I can gather. Again, my solution works but it's just really crude