That is a good question!
What region will your store be based in? That is the main criteria for being able to use Shopify Payments. See this link here for a list of all countries where Shopify Payments is available. If your business operates out of a country where Shopify Payments is not supported, then you would need to use an alternative third party payment gateway.
Are you hoping to be able to use a Shopify Payments US account, even though you are located outside of the US? If so, then you are correct in saying that there are specific criteria that would need to be met. The most important factors are whether you have a US tax ID and your business has physical operations on US soil. In addition to this, you will also require all of the following to be considered:
If you are located in the USA then you would be required to provide all 9 digits of your SSN/ITIN as verification when setting up your account. This rule still applies even if you have an EIN for your business. There is no way for us to bypass this step on sign up. If you wish to learn more about this you can refer to the US Shopify Payment Terms of Service: Section B-3.