Hi, you cannot do that directly in Shopify. But there are a few workarounds.
1. Consider creating different shipping profiles for different groups of products. Groups can be formed on the basis of products having similar dimensions and hence they cost similar to ship. Then you can add different shipping prices for different groups.
2. You can also opt for a third party app like ShipMagic. It will allow you to have granular control over you shipping rates. However, be informed that you need CCS to be enabled on your store for any shipping rate app to work.