Is there any way of creating one redirect that will work not only for https://some-store.myshopify.com/products/adidas-classic-backpack but also for https://some-store.myshopify.com/collections/nc-xxx1622/products/adidas-classic-backpack (ie for product links from collection pages) We are creating redirects for unpublished products and send site visitor to site Home. This is for SEO reasons.
No, even if you had server access it would be difficult to make a rule to match that sort of patterns - and with Shopify you don't.
But why would you make such redirects - when product is unpublished? I can't see any valid SEO reasons for this. For SEO as well as conversions it's better either to change the content - and explain to users why the product is no longer available (this preserves your rankings) or redirect to a matching alternative.